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Vascular risk and depression in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE)

TitleVascular risk and depression in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsZimmerman, JA, Mast, BT, Miles, T, Markides, KS
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric PsychiatryInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume24
Pagination409-416
Date PublishedApr
ISBN Number0885-6230<br/>1099-1166
Accession NumberPeer Reviewed Journal: 2009-05002-012
Keywords*Aging, *Epidemiology, *Major Depression, *Risk Factors, Affective Disorders [3211], Human Male Female Adulthood (18 yrs & older) Aged (65 yrs & older), Latinos/Latinas, us, vascular risk factors, major depression, Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly
AbstractObjective: Although vascular depression has received considerable research attention, relatively little research in this area has focused on minority samples. This study investigated the association between baseline vascular risk factors (VRFs) and risk for elevated depressive symptoms at 2-year follow-up in a sample of 964 individuals without significant depressive symptomotology (CES-D 24) at baseline from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Methods: We examined the associations between self-reported baseline vascular risk factors (chest pain, heart attack, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) and a composite of these risk factors with elevated depressive symptoms (CESD > 16) at 2-year follow-up. Results: Seventy-four (7.7%) of the 964 participants without evidence of depression at baseline demonstrated elevated depressive symptoms (CESD > 16) 2 years later. There was an overall pattern of higher rates of elevated depressive symptoms at 2-year follow-up with increasing number of vascular risk factors (0 VRFs = 6.4%, 1 VRF = 5.5%, 2 VRFs = 7.7%, and 3 or more VRFs = 14.7%). After controlling for demographic variables, physical functioning, and other medical conditions, the cumulative vascular risk index was significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms at 2-year follow-up (p