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Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults

TitleMediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsYe, X, Scott, T, Gao, X, Maras, JE, Bakun, PJ, Tucker, KL
JournalJ Acad Nutr DietJ Acad Nutr Diet
Volume113
Pagination276-81 e1-3
Date PublishedFeb
ISBN Number2212-2672 (Print)
Accession Number23351632
KeywordsAged, Cognition, Cognition Disorders/ epidemiology/prevention & control, Diet, Mediterranean, Diet/ethnology, Female, Hispanic Americans/ psychology/ statistics & numerical data, Humans, Male, Massachusetts, Mental Health, Middle Aged, Neuropsychological Tests, Nutrition Policy, Patient Compliance, Primary Prevention, Puerto Rico/ethnology, Risk Factors
AbstractAdherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P