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Gender and ethnic differences on select verbal and visuospatial measures among older European and Japanese Americans

TitleGender and ethnic differences on select verbal and visuospatial measures among older European and Japanese Americans
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsTanaka, TR
UniversityTanaka, Tara R : Pacific Graduate School Of Psychology, US
Accession NumberDissertation Abstract: 2005-99024-206
Keywords*Human Sex Differences, *Japanese Americans, *Performance, *Racial and Ethnic Differences, *Visuospatial Memory, Aging, Cognitive Processes [2340], Explicit Memory, Human Male Female Adulthood (18 yrs & older) Middle Age (40-64 yrs) Aged (65 yrs & older) Very Old (85 yrs & older), Japanese Americans, European Americans, verbal memory, explicit memory, performances, aging, visuospatial memory, gender differences, ethnic differences, Social Psychology [3000]
AbstractThis study examined gender and ethnic differences in verbal and visuospatial explicit memory performances among middle aged and elderly European and Japanese Americans. It was hypothesized that: (1) Men would perform better than women on visuospatial memory tasks and women would perform better than men on verbal memory tasks and (2) Japanese Americans would perform better than European Americans on visuospatial memory tasks and European Americans would perform better than Japanese Americans on verbal memory tasks. The sample was composed of 36 Japanese Americans (18 men; 18 women) and 36 European Americans (18 men; 18 women), aged 50 to 85 years old. They were administered the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the Visual Reproduction subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). These included CVLT Total Words over Trials 1-5, CVLT Short Delay Free Recall, CVLT Long Delay Free Recall, CVLT Long Delay Cued Recall and CVLT Long Delay Recognition Recall and the Immediate and Delayed Total Recall scores of the WMS III Visual Reproduction subtest. The data did not support the idea that men perform better than women on visuospatial explicit memory tasks. However, women outperformed men on the CVLT Trials 1-5, Short Delay Free Recall, Long Delay Free Recall and Long Delay Cued Recall trials. No significant gender differences were found on the CVLT Recognition Recall subtest. Further, the effect size of the gender differences was larger on certain CVLT measures for the European Americans, than for the Japanese Americans. No significant ethnic group differences were found on the WMS III Immediate or Delayed Total Recall Scores. Further, the hypothesis that Europeans Americans perform better than Japanese Americans on the CVLT was not confirmed. These findings provide some support of the need for separate gender norms for older individuals on some variables of the CVLT. There is also a suggestion that gender may interact with ethnicity on some verbal memory tasks. The generalizability of the findings are somewhat limited due to the homogeneous nature of the sample with respect to level of intellectual functioning, education and age range. Future directions for research in this area are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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