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Depression prevalence and associated factors among Alaska Native people: the Alaska education and research toward health (EARTH) study

TitleDepression prevalence and associated factors among Alaska Native people: the Alaska education and research toward health (EARTH) study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsDillard, DA, Smith, JJ, Ferucci, ED, Lanier, AP
JournalJ Affect DisordJ Affect Disord
Volume136
Pagination1088-97
Date PublishedFeb
ISBN Number1573-2517 (Electronic)<br/>0165-0327 (Linking)
Accession Number22138285
KeywordsAdult, Alaska/epidemiology, Demography, Depression/ epidemiology/ethnology/psychology, Female, Health Status, Humans, Indians, North American/ psychology, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence
AbstractBACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated depression among Alaska Native people (ANs). Depression prevalence and associated factors among EARTH Alaska study participants are described. METHODS: The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessed depression among 3771 ANs. Participants with PHQ-9 scores>/=10 out of 27 were classified as positive for depression. Logistic regression analyses evaluated odds of scoring positive versus negative for depression by demographic, cultural, then health and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Twenty percent of women and 13% of men scored positive for depression. Univariate and multivariate models were fit separately for men and women. Among demographic factors, below median income was associated with positive depression scores for both genders. Among men, odds of depression were higher if unmarried and/or if highest educational level was less than high school. Women 34 to 59 years of age had increased odds of scoring positive. Little or no identification with tribal tradition was associated with increased odds of depression in women and decreased odds in men. For both genders, chronic physical conditions and poorer self-reported health were associated with positive depression scores then binge alcohol drinking and current tobacco use increased odds of depression among women only. LIMITATIONS: Factors analyzed were self-reported without clinician follow-up in a non-random convenience sample of adults. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is common among ANs with rates comparable to other indigenous cross-sectional investigations. Depression is associated with lower income and poorer physical health. Prevention and intervention efforts should consider gender as other associated factors varied between men and women.
Ethno Med: